Ars Technica: The silicon wafers used in the fabrication of photovoltaic cells are fragile. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has determined that 5–10% of wafers break during the fabrication process. To reduce this loss rate, and the associated cost, NREL has developed a wafer-testing furnace to fit into most photovoltaic manufacturing lines. The Silicon Photovoltaic Wafer Screening System heats the wafers to temperatures of approximately 500 °C. If there are any flaws in the wafers, the heating will cause them to break, and the wafer material can be reused. NREL claims the system has a nearly 100% detection rate. The combination of early failure detection and the relatively low cost of the machine could save solar cell companies billions of dollars.